Androgen receptor targeted imaging of prostate cancer as future modality for diagnosis
Prostate cancer is the second most prevailing cancer among men worldwide. In the most cases, prostate cancer is slowly progressing, whereas, in some cases, it is a rapidly progressing disease with a significantly high mortality rate. Thus, there is still demand for prostate-specific imaging in order to provide image-guided early diagnosis and for provision of patient-specific therapy. Besides discussing traditional diagnostic approaches, this review illustrates a perspective on prostate cancer imaging summarizing current imaging approaches with a special focus on prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA), bombesin (BN) and androgen receptor (AR) targeted imaging using positron emission tomography (PET) and single positron emission computed tomography (SPECT) based on 99mTc and other radiotracers. Here, the prostate biology is rethought for nuclear imaging as future modality for early, rapid and efficient diagnosis of prostate cancer. Future direction in prostate cancer imaging involves the development of androgen receptor based imaging using nonsteroidal antiandrogen agent for early diagnosis of prostate cancer.